Chart notes | Jobs

Tables

Table 5.1. Average annual change in employment, GDP, hours, and productivity, 1948–2011. Underlying data for total economy productivity are unpublished data provided to the authors by the Bureau of Labor Statistics Labor Productivity and Costs program.

Table 5.2. Labor force share and unemployment rate, by age, 1979–2011. Underlying data are from the Current Population Survey public data series.

Table 5.3. Unemployment rate, by education and race and ethnicity, 2000–2011.Underlying data are basic monthly Current Population Survey microdata.

Table 5.4. Unemployment rate, by gender and education, 2000–2011. Underlying data are basic monthly Current Population Survey microdata.

Table 5.5. Decline in the labor force participation rate from 1989 to 2011 and its possible effect on the unemployment rate in 2011, by gender and age.Underlying data are basic monthly Current Population Survey microdata. The counterfactual 2011 labor force participation rate is what the labor force participation rate would have been in 2011 if the labor force participation rate of each of 30 gender/age/education cells had continued on the same linear trend from 2007 to 2011 that they followed from 1989 to 2007, but if the relative sizes of those cells evolved as they actually did. (Note, there are three age groups: 16–24, 25–54, and 55+; and five education groups: less than high school, high school, some college, college degree, and advanced degree. The table presents aggregated results by gender and age.) The counterfactual 2011 unemployment rate is what the unemployment rate in 2011 would have been if the workers making up the difference between the actual and the counterfactual 2011 labor force participation rate were in the labor force and unemployed instead of out of the labor force.

Table 5.6. Underemployment, 2000–2011. Underlying data are from the Current Population Survey public data series. Involuntary part time refers to those who work part time for economic reasons, i.e., those who want and are available for full-time work, but who have had to settle for a part-time schedule. Marginally attached refers to those who are currently neither working nor looking for work but indicate that they want and are available for a job and have looked for work sometime in the past year.

Table 5.7. Long-term unemployment, by demographic group, education, and occupation, 2000–2011.Underlying data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series.

Table 5.8. Industry distribution and job loss, by gender, 2007–2011.Underlying data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series.

Figures

Figure 5A. Jobs needed each month to hold steady and actual monthly job growth, 1969–2011. Actual monthly job growth, the number of jobs added per month on average, comes from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics (CES) public data series. Jobs needed each month to hold steady is the number of jobs needed per month on average in a given year to maintain the same ratio of payroll jobs to the working-age population that prevailed at the end of the prior year (payroll jobs data come from the CES, and the size of the working-age population age 16 and older comes from the Current Population Survey public data series). A three-year rolling average of the working-age population in December is used because of large year-to-year variability in the population growth rate as measured by the CPS.

Figure 5B. Distribution of employment, by industry, selected years, 1979–2011 (and 2020 projections). Underlying data for 1979–2011 are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series. Underlying data for 2020 are from the Employment Projections program, Table 2.1, “Employment by Major Industry Sector.”

Figure 5C. Distribution of employment, by firm size, 2011Q1. Underlying data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Business Employment Dynamicsprogram, National Firm Size Data—Supplemental Firm Size Class Tables, Table F, “Distribution of Private Sector Employment by Firm Size Class, Not Seasonally Adjusted.”

Figure 5D. Job gains, losses, and net employment change, by firm size, 2000–2011. Underlying data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Business Employment Dynamics program, National Firm Size Data—Size Class 1 Tables, Table 1, “Private Sector Firm-level Gross Job Gains and Job Losses: Seasonally Adjusted, Dynamic Method.”

Figure 5E. Distribution of employment, by occupation, selected years, 1989–2011. Underlying data are from the Current Population Survey public data series, Historical Table A-13, “Employed and Unemployed Persons by Occupation, Not Seasonally Adjusted.” Service occupations include health care support, protective service, food preparation and serving, building and grounds cleaning and maintenance, and personal care and service occupations.

Figure 5F. Good jobs as a share of total employment, all workers and by gender, and output per worker, selected years, 1979–2010.Good jobs shares are from Schmitt and Jones (2012), and output per worker is from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Labor Productivity and Costs program (unpublished Total Economy Productivity data provided to the authors upon request). Good jobs are defined as those that pay at least $18.50 per hour (the median male hourly wage in 1979 adjusted to 2010 dollars), have employer-provided health insurance where the employer pays at least some of the premium, and an employer-sponsored pension plan, including 401(k) and similar defined-contribution plans.

Figure 5G. Unemployment rate, 1948–2011.Underlying unemployment data are from the Current Population Survey public data series.

Figure 5H. Unemployment rate (actual and holding age distribution constant), 1979–2011. Underlying data are from the Current Population Survey public data series. The unemployment rate holding the age distribution constant since 1979 is the result of a simple exercise showing what the unemployment rate would be if the distribution of the labor force across age categories (ages 16–24, 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, and 55 and older) had not changed since January 1979, but the unemployment rates within each age category evolved as they actually did from January 1979 to December 2011.

Figure 5I. Unemployment rate, by race and ethnicity, 1979–2011. Underlying data are basic monthly Current Population Survey microdata. As with other CPS microdata analyses presented in the book, race/ethnicity categories are mutually exclusive (i.e., white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, and Hispanic any race).

Figure 5J. Unemployment rates of foreign-born and native-born workers, 1994–2011. Underlying data are basic monthly Current Population Survey microdata.

Figure 5K. Share of unemployed people with unemployment insurance benefits, 1989–2011. Underlying data are from the Current Population Survey public data series and the U.S. Department of Labor’s Unemployment Insurance Program Statistics, ”Persons Claiming UI Benefits in Federal Programs (Expanded)” [Excel spreadsheet]. Extended benefits refer to those extended by Congress during downturns beyond the regular state-financed benefits. Shares are calculated by dividing the number of persons claiming regular benefits by the total number of unemployed persons, and by dividing the total number of persons claiming extended benefits or regular benefits by the total number of unemployed persons. Weekly unemployment insurance claims data are converted into monthly data from January 1989 to December 2011.

Figure 5L. Labor force participation rate, by age and gender, 1959–2011. Underlying data are from the Current Population Survey public data series.

Figure 5M. Employment-to-population ratio, age 25–54, by gender, 1989–2011. Underlying data are from the Current Population Survey public data series.

Figure 5N. Underemployment rate, by race and ethnicity, 2000–2011. Underlying data are basic monthly Current Population Survey microdata. As with other CPS microdata analyses presented in the book, race/ethnicity categories are mutually exclusive (i.e., white non-Hispanic, black non-Hispanic, and Hispanic any race).

Figure 5O. Long-term unemployment, 1948–2011.Underlying data are from the Current Population Survey public data series.

Figure 5P. Unemployment rate, average monthly and over-the-year, 2000–2010.Average monthly unemployment rate underlying data are from the Current Population Survey public data series, and over-the-year unemployment underlying data are from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Work Experience of the Population (annual economic news release).

Figure 5Q. Job-seekers ratio, Dec. 2000–Dec. 2011.Job openings data are from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey, and unemployment data are from the Current Population Survey public data series.

Figure 5R. Voluntary quits, Dec. 2000–Dec. 2011.Underlying data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey.

Figure 5S. Job change since the start of each of the last four recessions. Underlying data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series. Data for each recession are indexed by the number of jobs in the first month of the recession. Monthly data span July 1989–December 2011.

Figure 5T. Job change since the start of each of the last four recoveries (all, private sector, and public sector). Underlying data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series. Data for each recession are indexed by the number of jobs in the first month of the recession’s recovery. Monthly data span July 1989–December 2011.

Figure 5U. Job change, by gender, in the Great Recession and its aftermath (Dec. 2007–Dec. 2011).Underlying data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series. Data for each gender are indexed by the number of jobs held by workers of that gender in the first month of the recession.

Figure 5V. Simulated job change by gender in the Great Recession and its aftermath (Dec. 2007–Dec. 2011), controlling for industry.Underlying data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Current Employment Statistics public data series. The graph presents the results of an exercise showing how employment of men and women would have changed over the four-year period if, in December 2007, men and women had had the same industry distribution but if job changes by gender within each industry had evolved as they actually did between December 2007 and December 2011.

Figure 5W. Unemployed workers and job openings, by industry, 2011.Underlying data are from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey and the Current Population Survey public data series.

Figure 5X. Unemployed workers, by occupation, 2007 and 2011.Underlying data are from basic monthly Current Population Survey microdata.

Figure 5Y. Unemployment rate, by education, 2007 and 2011.Underlying data are basic monthly Current Population Survey microdata.

Figure 5Z. Labor force status of involuntarily displaced workers, 1984–2010.Underlying data are from Farber (2011), Table 6, “Post-displacement Labor Force Status, 1984–2010.”

Figure 5AA. Average decline in weekly earnings for involuntarily displaced full-time workers who found new work, 1984–2010. Underlying data are from Farber (2011), Table 16, “Proportional Change in Real Weekly Earnings, Full-Time Job Losers.”

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