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Share of children in the bottom income fourth ending up in either the bottom or top income fourth as adults, by race

Source: Authors' analysis of Hertz (2006, Table 1)

Updated May 16, 2012

Documentation and methodology

Data are from Hertz (2006), Table 1, “Mobility Experience of Children Born in the Bottom Quartile, By Race.” The quartile boundaries change over time, as real incomes grow. The black-white gap in the likelihood of upward mobility was statistically significant at the 1 percent level, and persists after controlling for one’s starting position within the quartile, and for parental education.

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