Chart Detail

Impact of trade balance in manufacturing on employment and wages, by education, 1979–2005

1979 1989 2000 2005 Change 1979–2005
Trade (millions of dollars)
Imports (M) $112,235 $379,426 $1,012,856 $1,288,223 $1,175,988
Exports (X) 116,585 272,167 625,892 685,077 568,492
Net trade (X–M) 4,350 -107,259 -386,964 -603,146 -607,496
Trade-related employment (thousands)
Imports (M) 3,412 5,623 10,910 9,936 6,525
Exports (X) 3,142 3,615 6,564 4,597 1,455
Net trade (X-M) -269 -2,008 -4,346 -5,339 -5,070
Education intensity of trade (share of jobs)
Imports (M)
Less than college 89.8% 85.6% 79.0% 77.8% -12.0%
College or more 10.2 14.4 21.0 22.2 12.0
Exports (X)
Less than college 86.8% 80.9% 76.6% 73.5% -13.3%
College or more 13.2 19.1 23.4 26.5 13.3
Net trade (X-M) employment impact on:
Employment level (thousands)
Less than college -335 -1,891 -3,590 -4,354 -4,019
College or more 66 -117 -757 -985 -1,051
Total -269 -2,008 -4,346 -5,339 -5,070
Relative employment (change as share of group employment)
Less than college -0.5% -2.3% -3.8% -4.6% -4.2%
College or more 0.4 -0.5 -2.1 -2.5 -2.9
Relative change -0.8 -1.8 -1.7 -2.1 -1.3

Source: Bivens (2008)

Updated May 17, 2012

Documentation and methodology

Table is based on analysis of Bivens (2008).

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