Chart Detail

Change in sources of comprehensive income, middle fifth of households, selected years, 1979–2007 (2011 dollars)

In-kind income
Income Wages and imputed taxes Capital income Pensions and other income Cash transfers CPI-U-RS deflator* CPI-MC*
Employer- sponsored insurance Medicare and Medicaid Other
in-kind
Employer- sponsored
insurance
Medicare and Medicaid
1979 $58,751 $45,315 $4,114 $2,247 $3,942 $2,163 $817 $154 $2,163 $817
1989 59,724 41,605 5,198 3,692 5,058 2,358 1,722 90 1,757 1,283
1995 61,334 40,936 3,785 4,642 5,992 2,976 2,843 160 1,795 1,715
2000 65,637 43,654 4,347 5,667 6,034 2,568 3,242 125 1,470 1,855
2007 69,949 45,997 3,658 5,820 6,739 3,558 4,050 126 1,821 2,073
Share of income
1979 100.0% 77.1% 7.0% 3.8% 6.7% 3.7% 1.4% 0.3% 3.7% 1.4%
1989 100.0 69.7 8.7 6.2 8.5 3.9 2.9 0.2 3.0 2.2
1995 100.0 66.7 6.2 7.6 9.8 4.9 4.6 0.3 3.0 2.9
2000 100.0 66.5 6.6 8.6 9.2 3.9 4.9 0.2 2.3 2.9
2007 100.0 65.8 5.2 8.3 9.6 5.1 5.8 0.2 2.7 3.1
Average annual change
1979–1989 0.2% -0.9% 2.4% 5.1% 2.5% 0.9% 7.7% -5.2% -2.1% 4.6%
1989–1995 0.4 -0.3 -5.2 3.9 2.9 4.0 8.7 10.1 0.4 5.0
1995–2000 1.4 1.3 2.8 4.1 0.1 -2.9 2.7 -4.7 -3.9 1.6
2000–2007 0.9 0.7 -2.4 0.4 1.6 4.8 3.2 0.1 3.1 1.6
1979–2007 0.6 0.1 -0.4 3.5 1.9 1.8 5.9 -0.7 -0.6 3.4
Total change in 2011 dollars
1979–1989 $972 -$3,709 $1,085 $1,446 $1,116 $195 $905 -$64 -$406 $466
1989–1995 1,610 -669 -1,414 950 934 618 1,122 70 37 432
1995–2000 4,303 2,718 562 1,024 42 -407 399 -35 -325 140
2000–2007 4,312 2,344 -688 153 705 989 808 1 351 218
1979–2007 11,198 682 -455 3,573 2,797 1,395 3,233 -28 -342 1,256
Share of total change
1979–1989 100.0% -381.5% 111.5% 148.6% 114.8% 20.0% 93.0% -6.6% -41.7% 47.9%
1989–1995 100.0 -41.6 -87.8 59.0 58.0 38.4 69.6 4.4 2.3 26.8
1995–2000 100.0 63.2 13.1 23.8 1.0 -9.5 9.3 -0.8 -7.6 3.3
2000–2007 100.0 54.4 -16.0 3.6 16.3 22.9 18.7 0.0 8.1 5.0
1979–2007 100.0 6.1 -4.1 31.9 25.0 12.5 28.9 -0.2 -3.1 11.2

* The last two columns deflate health care contributions by a medical care price deflator that accounts for faster growth in health care costs relative to other consumer goods.

Source: Authors' analysis of data from the Congressional Budget Office (2010 and 2010b)

Updated May 22, 2012

Documentation and methodology

Underlying data are from the Congressional Budget Office, Average Federal Taxes by Income Group, “Sources of Income for All Households, by Household Income Category, 1979 to 2007” [Excel spreadsheet], as well as unpublished data related to the same CBO Web resource on the composition of in-kind income, with a breakout for health spending (both government transfers and employer-sponsored insurance benefits). “Imputed taxes” are taxes that are not directly paid by households to government (such as the employer’s share of the payroll tax), but which are “paid” in the form of lower wages and thus are added by the CBO to actual, observed wages to produce the measure of “pretax” income. “Other income” in the pensions category includes withdrawals from 401 (k) plans and traditional pensions and a small category of “other income” that CBO links with pension income in its reports. Note that the unpublished CBO data are unrounded, and produce slightly different income dollar values than the publicly available CBO dataset underlying Figures 2M and 2Z. For deflation of health care benefits (both transfers and employer-provided) we use the Consumer Price Index for medical care (CPI-MC) instead of the Consumer Price Index for Urban Consumers, Research Series (CPI-U-RS) that is used throughout the book.

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