Chart Detail

Likelihood that sons of low-earning fathers end up above various earnings thresholds as adults, depending on estimated ease of mobility

Note: The higher the estimated intergenerational elasticity (IGE), the lower the extent of mobility. Low-earning fathers are defined as those in the bottom 10th percentile.

Source: Authors' analysis of Solon (1989, Table 5)

Updated May 16, 2012

Documentation and methodology

Data are from Solon (1989), Table 5, “Probability that Son’s Long-Run Status Is in Specified Decile Given Percentile of Father’s Status.” Data are from the 1985 follow-up to the 1968 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. “Earnings” refers to wages.

Get the data behind the charts.

Explore Our Charts



Select a subject or demographic

Interactive feature

Interactive feature promo image When income grows, who gains?

For the media

Economic Policy Institute Media Relations Department (202) 775–8810 |